Nonsurgical treatment of chronic subdural hematoma with tranexamic acid
Hiroshi Kageyama, M.D.1,2, Terushige Toyooka, M.D., D.M.Sc.1, Nobusuke Tsuzuki, M.D., D.M.Sc.1, and Kazunari Oka, M.D., D.M.Sc.1
1Department of Neurosurgery, Kuki General Hospital, Kuki, Saitama; and 2Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
Abbreviation used in this paper: CSDH = chronic subdural hematoma.
Address correspondence to: Hiroshi Kageyama, M.D., Kuki General Hospital, Kamihayami 418-1, Kuki, Saitama 346-0021, Japan. email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please include this information when citing this paper: published online May 3, 2013; DOI: 10.3171/2013.3.JNS122162.
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common condition after head trauma. It can often be successfully treated surgically by inserting a bur hole and draining the liquefied hematoma. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, for nonemergency cases not requiring surgery, no reports have indicated the best approach for preventing hematoma enlargement or resolving it completely. The authors hypothesized that hyperfibrinolysis plays a major role in liquefaction of the hematoma. Therefore, they evaluated the ability of an antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, to completely resolve CSDH compared with bur hole surgery alone.
From 2007 to 2011, a total of 21 patients with CSDH seen consecutively at Kuki General Hospital, Japan, were given 750 mg of tranexamic acid orally every day. Patients were identified by a retrospective records review, which collected data on the volume of the hematoma (based on radiographic measurements) and any complications. Follow-up for each patient consisted of CT or MRI every 21 days from diagnosis to resolution of the CSDH.
Of the 21 patients, 3 with early stages of CSDH were treated by bur hole surgery before receiving medical therapy. The median duration of clinical and radiographic follow-up was 58 days (range 28–137 days). Before tranexamic acid therapy was initiated, the median hematoma volume for the 21 patients was 58.5 ml (range 7.5–223.2 ml); for the 18 patients who had not undergone surgery, the median hematoma volume was 55.6 ml (range 7.5–140.5 ml). After therapy, the median volume for all 21 patients was 3.7 ml (range 0–22.1 ml). No hematomas recurred or progressed.
Tranexamic acid might simultaneously inhibit the fibrinolytic and inflammatory (kinin-kallikrein) systems, which might consequently resolve CSDH. This medical therapy could prevent the early stages of CSDH that can occur after head trauma and the recurrence of CSDH after surgery.