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Management of Zygomatic Fractures in Young Patients: Technical Modifications for Aesthetic and Functional Results

Management of Zygomatic Fractures in Young Patients: Technical Modifications for Aesthetic and Functional Results: imageIntroduction: The zygomaticomaxillary complex is very vulnerable to injury because of its intrinsically prominent convexity. There are 2 different surgical approaches for the therapy of these fractures: closed reduction and open reduction. In the open reduction 2 or 3 fixation points with related incisions are usually necessary in dislocated fractures: osteosynthesis must be performed starting from zygomaticofrontal suture when dislocated at this site, followed by zygomatic body fixation on the anterior sinus wall, anterior orbital floor margin fixation, and finally orbital floor reconstruction in case of eye globe dislocation with diplopia.

Aim: This study evaluated the combination of the transconjunctival (TC) approach without canthotomy in association with the transoral maxillary approach and lateral rim skin incision (SI) without canthotomy for frontozygomatic dislocated fractures to achieve proper reduction and stabilization without any aesthetic decay in young patients. A less invasive and more aesthetic technique is shown for treating dislocated zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures with 2 or 3 fixation points and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) use to promote tissue healing.

Materials and methods: Ten patients (mean age: 32) were referred for dislocated zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. Five patients were treated by TC approach without canthotomy in association with the transoral maxillary approach and, when needed, eyebrow SI without canthotomy for frontozygomatic dislocated fractures (group 1). Five more patients were treated by traditional subciliar incision at lower eyelid and vertical lateral incision at lateral margin of the orbit (group 2). Autologous PRF for orbital floor reconstruction was used. The follow-up period was 6 months long. Follow-up radiographs (TC) and photos were routinely used to evaluate the adequacy of reduction and lower eyelid right position or retraction.

Results: All cases were successful; there were no problems at surgery and postoperative time. During the 6-month follow-up, all 5 patients of group 1 showed satisfactory facial symmetry, no noticeable scarring, no ectropion or lower eyelid significant droop, and no functional impairment. Mean difference for lower eyelid droop between the 2 groups of patients was 1.4 mm at T1 and 1.2 mm at T2.

Discussion: Aesthetic result is a priority in the treatment planning of orbitozygomatic fractures because of the fundamental role of the eye and lid area in the aesthetic of the face. In our experience best aesthetic results were achieved through a latero cantal horizontal SI combined to a vertical periosteal incision at the frontozygomatic rim without canthotomy, thus performing a different double-layer incision. In the patients with large orbital floor dislocation, reconstructive titanium mesh was covered by autologous PRF membranes, which can improve the vascularization of the surgical site, by promoting neoangiogenesis.

Conclusions: In young patients these techniques are indicated because of the need of better aesthetic results that can be achieved by preventing postoperative functional impairment with lower eyelid droop and unnatural aesthetic asymmetry of the 2 lower lids. This more conservative technique resulted in better aesthetic results, avoiding most common complications.

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