Objectives: Cerebral edema is a key poor prognosticator in traumatic brain injury. There are no biomarkers identifying patients at-risk, or guiding mechanistically-precise therapies. Sulfonylurea receptor-1-transient receptor potential cation channel M4 is upregulated only after brain injury, causing edema in animal studies. We hypothesized that sulfonylurea receptor-1 is measurable in human cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury and is an informative biomarker of edema and outcome.
Design: A total of 119 cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from 28 severe traumatic brain injury patients. Samples were retrieved at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours and before external ventricular drain removal. Fifteen control samples were obtained from patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. Sulfonylurea receptor- 1 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Outcomes included CT edema, intracranial pressure measurements, therapies targeting edema, and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale score.
Main Results: Sulfonylurea receptor-1 was present in all severe traumatic brain injury patients (mean = 3.54 +/- 3.39 ng/mL, peak = 7.13 +/- 6.09 ng/mL) but undetectable in all controls (p