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The dangers of parathyroid biopsy

Abstract

Background

We report an unusual case of a 66-year-old female with a suspicious thoracic outlet mass presenting with severe biochemical hyperparathyroidism and classic hypercalcemic symptoms of renal and bone involvement.

Case Presentation

There was clinical suspicion for parathyroid carcinoma, further supported by intra-operative findings. However, the final pathology described a primary hyperceullar parathyroid lesion with pathognomonic changes secondary to fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, along with a separate parathyroid lesion likely resulting from seeding along the needle tract. Upon further review, record of a remote FNA was discovered. This case highlights the complications associated with parathyroid FNA resulting in a diagnostic challenge and raising the possibility of malignancy.

Conclusions

We therefore recommend to take caution when there is a prior parathyroid FNA, as it can present with the risks of a secondary lesion from seeding and increase resemblance of malignancy both clinically and through pathologic diagnosis.



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